10
May
13

Recently Discovered Hydrogen Clouds = Wave 3 Galaxies?

[I am going to temporarily suspend my series on "Evolution of the Wave-based Universe" in order to write about some other elements of Cascading Essence Cosmology that have been pressing on my mind recently. Fear not - I will see the series to its end later on, describing how the model sees the Universe evolving in the future and, eventually, ending.]

The other day, a news story came to me through a cosmology alert I get in my email. The headline of the story was “Astronomers discover surprising clutch of hydrogen clouds lurking among our galactic neighbors.”

The beginning of the article caught immediately caught my eye:

In a dark, starless patch of intergalactic space, astronomers have discovered a never-before-seen cluster of hydrogen clouds strewn between two nearby galaxies, Andromeda (M31) and Triangulum (M33). The researchers speculate that these rarefied blobs of gas — each about as massive as a dwarf galaxy — condensed out of a vast and as-yet undetected reservoir of hot, ionized gas, which could have accompanied an otherwise invisible band of dark matter.

Here’s the rendition of the new discovery that accompanies the article:

M31M33Wave3

This combined graphic shows new, high-resolution GBT imaging (in box) of recently discovered hydrogen clouds between M31 (upper right) and M33 (bottom left).
Credit: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF.

My first thought was that this might be a perfect example of what I’ve been calling Wave 3 galaxies in their formative stages.

Forming in the vast empty spaces between the Andromeda galaxy (@ 2.5 Mly from Earth) and the Triangulum galaxy (@ 3 Mly from Earth), what was previously seen as “wispy puffs” drawn out between the galaxies is now – through the more powerful Green Bank Telescope (GBT) – seen as having distinct structures and features. While there weren’t any stars to be seen in these formations there was enough matter in each to make them “dead ringers for dwarf galaxies.” This is just the kind of formation that CEC predicts for Wave 3: smaller galaxies forming in intergalactic space.

While the standard explanation being used for these cloud clusters are that they are as old as the rest of the Universe but either haven’t formed into stars/galaxies themselves or are attached to dark matter, CEC predicts that they consist primarily of newly introduced Wave 3 essential elements and are actually in the process of forming new galaxies. We are seeing here the birth of new (albeit relatively small) galaxies right in our own galactic neighbourhood!

A really cool video of how the cloud clusters emerged out of ever-more-powerful observations was published on the NRAO website. As well, an excellent interview with one of the NRAO scientists has been released, where he admits they can’t explain where these clouds came from and that they will be looking for more in our galactic neighbourhood.

One thing that didn’t perfectly fit with my understanding of CEC was that the new Wave 3 galaxies were forming within our galaxy cluster, not between galaxy clusters as I had previously proposed. However, thinking about it now, it seems plausible that the density of space in a galaxy cluster might be even lower in places than the density of space between galaxy clusters. With the relatively close proximity of galaxies within a cluster, these galaxies might have drawn away more dense elements from between them, leaving large expanses of ultra-low density elements – the precise breeding ground for massive new essence introductions.  I’m going to continue to consider the mechanics of that, and may need to revisit some earlier posts about waves and introductions.

So, now that these emergent Wave 3 galaxies (if that is, indeed, what they are) have been discovered, what might be discovered next? CEC would predict that there may be similar Wave 3 galaxies within our local galaxy cluster and also possibly within our local galaxy super-cluster. However, we should only be able to see these new galaxies out to about 1 Gly distant. Radiation from galaxies further away will either be too weak to measure or will not have had time to reach us yet. Also, since I am predicting that these are not “static” clouds of gas, but rather actively  forming galaxies, the new galaxies further away from these recently discovered ones should be seen as having less mature organizations than those closer by. A really good test of these CEC ideas!

It will be fascinating to watch this new discovery unfold. Will they be able to detect other types of matter within these evolving galaxies? Will they draw comparisons between these galaxies and early ones seen at the farthest reaches of the Observable Universe? Will they now quickly find other examples of such galaxies – and where?

All very exciting.

26
Apr
13

Evolution of the Wave-based Universe (Part 11)

In the last post, we looked at the events around the start of Wave 3 cascades and the subsequent initial introduction of Wave 3 essential elements in Space. At that point, our local Wave 2 area would have looked like this:

Wave1-21

Here’s our local Wave 2 area immediately after the first Wave 3 introduction of elements into Space. The new Wave 3 areas are circled in purple.

If we fast forward 2 Gyr, to 31 Gyr, a typical Wave 3 area would have evolved to have one (or maybe two) galaxies within them. There would not be enough elements introduced into each Wave 3 area or enough room within these areas to create more galaxies.

A typical Wave 3 area would have looked like the following:

Wave1-22

A single galaxy would be taking form near the center of a typical Wave 3 area.

If we zoomed back out to our local Wave 2 area, we would see that the new Wave 3 areas would have expanded from their original sizes and the Wave 2 galaxy clusters would have shrunk slightly as they evolved.

Wave1-23

At 31 Gyr, our local Wave 2 area has evolving Wave 3 areas and distortions near its borders with the surrounding Wave 1 area.

As you can also see, the Wave 2 galaxy clusters closest to the Wave 1 area would be “distorted” in the direction away from the center of their own Wave 2 areas – by the incredible cohesion (gravity) force of the surrounding black mega-holes. In fact, even the Wave 3 areas closest to the Wave 1 area would be distorted. In fact, the cohesion force on them would be so great that it would prevent galaxies from forming at all in these Wave 3 areas. (Instead of the denser elements coming together to form galaxies, they would instead all be pulled towards the black mega-holes.)

This state, at 31 Gyr, is where I believe we currently are in the life of our Overall Universe. Give or take several hundred million years…. This age of the Universe is significantly different from the approximately 14 Gyr the current models predict. After I finish this series of posts on the evolution of the Universe, I’ll further explain my thinking around why 31 Gyr is the here and now.

So, welcome to AD 2013! [From now on I'll switch from the past tense to the present and future tenses.]

If we expand out from the local Wave 2 area to look at the Overall Universe, here’s what we see:

Wave1-24

Here’s how the Universe looks at the present time, 31 Gyr.

Notice that the Wave 2 areas, boosted by their Wave 3 additions, are taking up even more of the Overall Universe, relatively speaking. While the size of the Overall Universe is once again expanding slightly, this trend will not last for long as the contraction in Wave 1 and Wave 2 areas will soon outpace the expansion from Wave 2 areas.

In future posts, we’ll talk briefly about how our Observable Universe looks to us at 31 Gyr and how that is predicted to change over the coming several billion of years.

22
Apr
13

Evolution of the Wave-based Universe (Part 10)

In the last post, we examined both when the Overall Universe stopped expanding (@ 19 Gyr) and when the volumes of Wave 1 and Wave 2 space became equal (@ 24 Gyr).

At this point, we’ll fast-forward 2 Gyr to 26 Gyr, just before the start of the next Wave (which would happen every 13 Gyr). We’ll examine, first,  how our local Wave 2 area would look at this point.

Wave1-19

Here’s how our local Wave 2 area would look just before the third Wave of essential element cascades begins.

Similar to how the Universe looked at 13 Gyr – just before the start of Wave 2 – each Wave 2 area would have evolved closely knit galaxy clusters surrounded by fairly dense space, with areas of ongoing, decreasing-volume, ultra-low density introductions (represented by white circles) spread evenly about. I’ve made the green line around our Wave 2 area lighter in colour and thicker to indicate the effect that the surrounding, ever-denser Wave 1 area would start having on it. The heavier essential elements near the edges of Wave 2 areas would be drawn by the extreme cohesion forces of the Wave 1 areas, thus blurring the borders between Wave 1 and Wave 2.

At this point, Wave 3 cascades would begin. Like with previous Waves, it would take approximately 3 Gyr before Wave 3 elements start cascading into Space. At that point, at 29 Gyr, the Universe would look like the following:

Wave1-20

At 29 Gyr, the Universe is just about to see the first introductions of Wave 3 elements into Space.

You can see that the Wave 2 areas would have expanded to take up even more volume, and the Wave 1 areas contracted to become a spread-out, very-dense “wrapper” for the Wave 2 areas. The Wave 1 galaxies, which have been evolving for 26 Gyr, would at this time consist of black mega-holes (really, really large and dense black holes) and would (in three-dimensions) more or less evenly surround the Wave 2 areas. I’ve outlined these black mega-holes in red to denote their power.

So, now the first group of essential elements from Wave 3 would be introduced into Space. They would appear at some, but not all, of the lowest-density spots in the Wave 2 areas. Let’s use our Wave 2 area again as an example. I’ll use the colour purple to denote Wave 3 essence – just to keep things as clear as possible.

Wave1-21

Here’s our local Wave 2 area immediately after the first Wave 3 introduction of elements into Space. The new Wave 3 areas are circled in purple.

There would many more Wave 3 areas in each Wave 2 area than there were Wave 2 areas in the Wave 1 area. As well, the total starting volume of these areas would shrink again by half from the first introduction of Wave 2 essence (due to the fact that Wave 3 would comprise only 12.5% of the overall essential elements in the Universe, vs. 25% for Wave 2 and 50% for Wave 1).

In the next post, we’ll finally come to it – the “You are now” moment! (Did some of you see it coming??)

17
Apr
13

Evolution of the Wave-based Universe (Part 9)

In the last post, we placed our galaxy, The Milky Way, in the context of the larger Universe at 17 Gyr and broached the subject of what would have been, at that time, the future limits of our current Observable Universe.

The next thing we’re going to explore is how the Universe looked 2 Gyr later, at 19 Gyr. What is the significance of 19 Gy? I believe that this is when the Universe would have been at its largest diameter, about 3.36U. Here’s how the map would look at that point.

Wave1-16

Here’s the Universe at 19 Gyr as it reaches its maximum diameter and volume. From here, the trend is to contraction.

This is the point at which the ongoing contraction/shrinking of Wave 1 elements and new Wave 2 elements would overcome the expansive effect of new Wave 2 elements. At 3.36U in diameter, the Universe would be about 38 times the volume of the initial universe at 3 Gyr. From here, while there would be small fluctuations up and down in total volume, the overall trend would be towards the Universe getting smaller and smaller as it got denser and denser.

Notice that the galaxies in the Wave 2 areas would have had 2 Gyr to evolve and start to gather in tighter galaxy clusters of their own. As well, since the new influx of elements into the Wave 1 area would have all but ended, the Wave 1 clusters would be getting tighter and tighter with more galaxies colliding and combining.

For our next snapshot, we’ll zoom forward a further 5 Gyr – to 24 Gyr. This is an interesting moment as it would mark the time when the volume of Wave 1 space (which would have been steadily decreasing) would be equal to the volume of Wave 2 space (which would have been steadily increasing). Both would have been at about 13 times the volume of the initial Universe, leading to an overall diameter of 2.96 U.

Wave1-17

At 24 Gyr, the volume of space taken up by the expanding Wave 2 areas equals that of the contracting Wave 1 area.

As you can see, the Wave 2 areas would now, in total, be taking up about the same amount of space as the Wave 1 area.

Even more Wave 1 galaxy consolidation has happened, with the remaining Wave 1 galaxies being dominated by really-really-massive black holes. Fewer and fewer individual star systems would remain in these galaxies, unabsorbed by the black holes at their cores. The surrounding Wave 2 space, while still recognizable to us as empty space, would be becoming increasingly dense.

Here’s how our Observable Universe would look at this time:

Wave1-18

Here’s our Observable Universe at 24 Gyr. Galaxy clusters are becoming well-formed and the surrounding space is getting denser.

Notice that the space around the Wave 2 galaxy clusters would be getting more dense as the overall diameter of the Observable Universe expands to 26 Gly.

In the next post, we’ll examine how the Universe would look over the 3 Gyr timespan between the start of the third wave of essential element cascades and the time of the first introduction of Wave 3 essence into Space.

13
Apr
13

Evolution of the Wave-based Universe (Part 8)

In the last post, we saw how the Universe would look 1 Gyr after the first introduction of Wave 2 essential elements into Space (@ 17 Gyr). Two classes of Wave 2 galaxies were forming in various U2 areas throughout the original U1 area. Clusters of Wave 2 galaxies were just starting to take shape.

Wave1-14

The Universe at 17 Gyr contains many U2 areas, each of which contain two classes of evolving Wave 2 galaxies.

If we zoom out from the close-up on a single evolving U2 area and look at the larger Universe at 17 Gyr, it would look something like this:

You can see that the overall size of the Universe has increased slightly, from 3.22U to 3.24U as a result of the combined expansions of the various U2 areas. Notice that each U2 area is now filled with its own set of galaxies. (Hard to see, but they’re there!) As well, the ultra-low-density areas remaining in U1 at 16 Gyr have disappeared over the last billion years, as by this time almost all new introductions are now in the less-dense U2 areas.

At this point in the evolution of the Universe, according to CEC, I want to place us where we are. I believe that the Milky Way galaxy, where our solar system and planet exist, is a Wave 2 galaxy. The reasons for this choice are based on current observations that can be made – and more about those observations will be revealed over time. For now, let’s simply say that our U2 area is the one highlighted in the orange rectangle above. At this time, I can’t think of a particular reason to pick one U2 area over another, so I’ll just go with that one for our discussion.

If we zoom in again on that particular U2 area, we can then pick from the young, evolving galaxies the one that represents our Milky Way galaxy (marked with an orange circle below).

Wave1-15

This picture of our own U2 area shows where our home galaxy (The Milky Way) is situated. The dotted orange circle represents the limits of the Observable Universe as of this moment in time (AD 2013).

I’ve selected a galaxy from the second class of Wave 2 galaxies – that is, one that was formed from the second Wave 2 introduction. We won’t be zooming further into the galactic scale to show exactly where Earth is. For this discussion, we’re only focussing on the galaxy-by-galaxy level.

The four other galaxies in the above map that would eventually form a local galaxy cluster are stand-ins for the approximately 1300 galaxies that actually make up our Virgo Cluster.

The dotted orange circle surrounding our nascent U2 area takes a little explaining…. This circle represents an approximation of our Observable Universe. Basically, the area within the circle is the limit of how “far” we will be able to see at the present time (AD 2013). Anything within that circle, including as the circle expands as the enclosed U2 are expands, is possible for us to see today when we look out at the stars. If something happens outside this circle, there is no way we can directly observe it from Earth at this time.

You can also think of it in the following way. The light travelling from something happening at the edge of the circle at 17 Gyr will just now be reaching us on Earth. This is because as the light generated at 17 Gyr moves towards us, more and more space is being added (through introductions) between that approaching light and us, the observers. In a similar way, if something happened at the edge of this expanding circle at 18 Gyr, we would not be able to see it on Earth until at least 1 Gyr from now.

The fundamental principle I’m try to get across here is that the Observable Universe – what we can and cannot observe at our particular moment in time is different than the actual current state of that same area. This is a hard concept to wrap your head around, but it also holds true in the current models of the Universe.

Now that we know where we are in the overall Universe, in upcoming posts I’ll discuss when we are in the Universe and how our local U2 area is changing around us even though we cannot yet see it.

09
Apr
13

Evolution of the Wave-based Universe (Part 7)

In the last post, we saw how the Universe would look at the beginning of the second wave (Wave 2) of essential element cascades – which would occur approximately 13 Gyr (billion years) after the beginning cascade of the Universe.

The Wave 2 elements (comprising 25% of all possible elements) would take about an additional 3 Gyr before any of them would cascade into representation in Space. During those 3 Gyr, the Wave 1 elements in Space would continue to evolve as they had been for the previous 10 Gyr. The Universe just before the first Wave 2 cascade into Space would look like:

Wave1-11

Here’s how the Universe looks immediately before the very first introduction of Wave 2 essential elements into Space. Note that much of deep space is denser than a few inter-cluster areas where new elements are still trickling in.

Notice that the denser space areas have increased in size and that some of the low-density inter-cluster areas have moved slightly or have even been “shut off”.

At that point, at 16 Gyr, there would be a very large simultaneous introduction of elements into Space as the first Wave 2 elements reach the S2 state. The total number of elements being introduced would be half as many as were introduced 13 Gyr earlier – which would still be an extremely large amount. In addition, these new elements would be split between a number of different points of introduction throughout the Universe. Those points of introduction would correlate to some, but not necessarily all of the low-density inter-cluster areas. The new map, after that first moment of Wave 2 introductions would look like:

Wave1-12

Here’s how the Universe looks immediately following the first, large introduction of Wave 2 elements into Space. The green circles represent areas where the Wave 2 elements were introduced and where they will continue to be introduced. (The orange rectangle marks the U2 area we are going to focus on next.)

In the above map, the new Wave 2 areas are circled in green – only for reference purposes, of course. While the new areas look small in comparison to the Wave 1 Universe, each such point of introduction from this initial Wave 2 introduction would result in a large enough area of ultra-low-density to recreate the conditions necessary for new galaxies and galaxy clusters to subsequently evolve within their radii. Each such Wave 2 mini-Universe (denoted U2) would continue to have the lowest-density areas in the entire Universe, meaning that subsequent Wave 2 introductions would focus almost exclusively in these areas, driving their continuing expansion within the larger Universe. In fact, the expansion of the overall Universe would accelerate due to these U2 areas.

If we fast-forward 1 Gyr (to 17 Gyr), and focus in on the one U2 area highlighted (within the orange rectangle) in the previous map, we can see that it is evolving similarly to how the much larger U1 area was taking shape 13 Gyr earlier (at 4 Gyr).

Wave1-13

Here’s how the area marked in the previous map looks after another 1 Gyr. Two categories of galaxies have evolved.

Some things to note about this map:

  • I have used deepening shades of green to denote increasing densities in U2 areas. There is no fundamental difference between U1 and U2 densities – the different colours are simply meant to keep track of elements introduced through the different waves.
  • Note that there are only two separate categories of galaxies in this U2 area. Because the flows of introduced elements in these areas would be be much lower than in their U1 counterparts, it would make it harder for successive introductions to produce new galaxies. We’ll say that for U2 areas, only the first two introductions of Wave 2 elements would produce the conditions necessary for new galaxies to be created. That means that the galaxies in existence in U2 areas at 17 Gyr represent all the Wave 2 galaxies that will be produced (with the exception of any galaxies formed by the collision/consolidation of these existing galaxies).
  • The diameter of this U2 sphere is marked as 12 Gly (12 billion light years). As this U2 area expands through further Wave 2 introductions, the distance from one side to the opposite side will expand to ~30 Gly.  More about these distances and their ramifications in future posts.
  • The large blue rectangle surrounding this U2 area represents the U1 “wrapper” in which the U2 area will evolve. At this point (17 Gyr), the average density of this surrounding U1 wrapper would be much denser than the “empty space” within the U1 area – but would still, itself, be experienced as empty space.

One overall difference is that each U2 area contains orders of magnitude fewer galaxies and galaxy clusters. (In our map, we’ll show a slightly smaller number of galaxies, but please imagine that there are many, many fewer.) Taking all U2 areas together, there would be approximately 50% as many galaxies created as in the one larger U1 area.

In the next post, I’ll speak to the “You are Here” idea, placing our galaxy into our Observable Universe.

06
Apr
13

Evolution of the Wave-based Universe (Part 6)

In the last post, I leapt forward to how the Universe would look after 20 introductions of essential elements into Space. No new galaxies were being created, and the existing galaxy clusters were getting further apart from one another and denser within themselves. Because of a lessening of new elements being introduced within galaxy clusters, occasional galactic collisions and consolidations were occurring. The Universe at this point looked like the following:

Wave1-9

Here’s what the Universe would look like after 20 introductions of essential elements into Space. Note that in some places (orange circles) galactic collisions have occurred.

The combination of the probabilistic nature of whether cascades occur during cascade events and the proliferation of new classes of essence distributions would cause the frequency of Wave 1 element introduction to increase over time and the relative size of these introductions to decrease over time. The remainder of the cascades of Wave 1 elements into Space (and into denser and denser forms once in Space) would continue for billions of years. The basic effect of those continued introductions and overall cascading would be the same, though – existing galaxies and galaxy clusters would get denser and denser and further apart from each other.

Let’s fast forward to approximately 13 billion years (Gyr) after the initial cascade that started the Universe. Wave 1 elements have been introduced into Space over a 10 Gyr period and have been evolving into denser forms (each at its own, independent rate and sequence) and collecting in larger densities. While most of the 3D area in Space is still taken up by ultra-low-density elements (what we perceive as empty space), many more total elements are represented in much denser forms, collected primarily within galaxies. Let’s say that approximately 90% of the 50% of overall elements that cascaded at that very first moment of time (i.e., the Wave 1 elements) have, by this time, cascaded into representations in Space, leaving 10% of 50% in the distribution class [?,?,?,?,?,0,0]. The large majority of these 5% of overall elements would still be of the distribution [.7,.3,.0,0,0,0,0].

Because the amounts included in each new introduction has, by this time, decreased to a relative trickle, most of the elements that we perceive as empty Space would have undergone some further cascades after their introductions into Space. This would leave relatively few areas in the Universe with ultra-low-dense distributions similar to those seen at the beginning of the Wave 1 introductions into Space. The Universe map might look something like the following at 13 Gyr.

Wave1-10

Here’s how the Universe looks at ~13 Gyr, as Wave 2 is set to begin. The shades of blue represent levels of density and the white dots the areas of lowest density.

Let’s examine the new map.

  1. Notice that the overall diameter of the Universe has increased to ~3U – meaning that the overall volume is about 27 times as much as at the first introduction into Space (about 10 Gyr earlier). While the total number of elements expressed in Space has increased many, many times more than this, the average increase in density of the individual elements has counter-balanced most of the overall expansion.
  2. Notice that all the galaxies are now represented by black dots. This indicates that they have all evolved, over the last 9 – 10 Gyr, into similarly dense structures with similar black holes at their cores.
  3. I have used varying shades of blue to indicate the different overall densities of intra-cluster and inter-cluster space. While it would all appear to us as “empty space”, the space within clusters and immediately around them would be denser than that further between clusters. While I’ve only used three shades of blue, there would, in reality, be many more density levels.
  4. I have used pure white circles to represent the small areas in deepest inter-cluster space where the density is the lowest, where elements on average are similar in distribution to new elements that would be introduced into Space.

At this point, while the Universe represented in Space continues to evolve, the essential elements that did not undergo a cascade from S7 to S6 at the beginning of time (that is, the 50% of all elements still at [1,0,0,0,0,0,0] distribution) would experience their second cascade event. 50% of these 50% of elements (=25% overall) would now undergo a cascade into distribution [.7,.3,0,0,0,0,0], starting a second wave (Wave 2) of essential elements heading down the inescapable path towards expression in Space.

[Bear in mind that Wave 1 continues to happen after Wave 2 begins – there are still 10% of the Wave 1 elements that are not expressed in Space, and all Wave 1 elements continue to follow their own individual cascade paths while Wave 2 cascades occur around them, temporally.]

What then is the relative “size” of Wave 2? Wave 1 comprised 50% of all available elements with 45% (50%*.9) expressed in Space at this moment in time (13 Gyr). Wave 2 contains 25% (50% of 50%) of all available elements, so we can expect that it will result in a further 22.5% of all possible elements being added to Space over the next ~13 Gyr. So, at the beginning of Wave 3 (at ~26 Gyr), there will be 67.5% of all possible elements introduced into Space by then.

In the next post, I’ll start showing how Wave 2 elements actually get introduced into Space and how that makes the evolving Universe more beautiful and complex.




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